Schömig, N., Naujoks, F., Hammer, T., Tomzig, M., Hinterleitner, B., & Mayer, S. (2018, July). Experimental Induction and Measurement of Negative Affect Induced by Interacting with In-vehicle Information Systems. In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 441-452). Springer, Cham.

The goal of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to induce negative affects in the interaction with IVIS in a driving simulator environment and whether this would be reflected in the driver’s facial expressions. N = 29 participants completed a 30-min-drive in a high-fidelity driving simulator performing several IVIS tasks using both a visual multi-level menu and a simulated speech recognition navigation system. During the drive, negative affects were induced by increasing the complexity of the menu tasks and decreasing the recognition rate of the speech system. The results show that experiencing difficulties in solving IVIS tasks went along with self-reported negative affect such as frustration and anger. A newly developed observation protocol adapted from the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) used for the ratings of negative emotions based on the video footage of the drivers’ face during the simulator trials was established. The method revealed significant correlations with the self-reported measures of negative emotions. However, there were no correlations between the observed facial expressions and the sub-scales of the State-Trait-Anger-Inventory (STAXI). The study shows the importance of a well-designed IVIS in order to prevent negative emotions that might result in non-acceptance of new technologies. The study also shows the potential of facial recognition technology to provide assistance or tutoring functions that could relieve the driver from emotional discomfort.

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