Hinterleitner, B., Hammer, T., Mayer, S., Naujoks, F., & Schömig, N. (2018, July). Analyzing Gaze Behavior Prior to Interacting with a Multimedia Interface in a Car. In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 258-268). Springer, Cham.

With the increasing number of functionalities of In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) their complexity is rising. In addition new input modalities are used to control the car. Many manufacturers switch from using haptic input devices to touchscreens. On the other hand there are increasingly more sensors available in a car that could support the driver in their interaction with an IVIS by analyzing the driver’s behavior. In this study gaze behavior prior to an interaction with was analyzed. Therefore 32 participants completed different tasks with an IVIS in a high-fidelity driving simulator. While driving, the participants were asked to navigate to a specific entry in a multi-level menu. Task and driving difficulty were modified as well as the input modality. One experimental group used a touchscreen and another one a rotary knob. Between the tasks, a short status information was presented to the participant either auditory or on a display. In 60.19% of the interactions, at least two preparatory glances were made. When using a rotary knob drivers had significantly less fixations on the touchscreen but those fixations lasted significantly longer. Difficulty of the driving task had no effect on the number of glances. When presenting information, the first glance is directed to the display the information appeared in. Using only sound and no visual information, the first glance is directed mostly to the center display rather than the cluster display. These findings should be considered for future design of IVIS and can help develop a more natural user interface.

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